等离子体煤气化技术研究进展

龚泽儒1,2,王晓娜2,吕俊复1,张 戟3

(1.清华大学 能源与动力工程系,北京 100084;2.烟台龙源电力技术股份有限公司,山东 烟台 264006;3.国网辽宁省电力有限公司电力科学研究院,辽宁 沈阳 110006)

:等离子体煤气化技术是一种能够实现煤的超洁净使用的新技术,具有很大的潜在应用前景。介绍了等离子体煤气化的基本原理及3种典型技术:水蒸气等离子体煤气化技术、等离子体辅助煤气化及CO2等离子体煤气化技术,其中水蒸气等离子体煤气化中碳转化率可达93%~94%,比常规气化合成气浓度高十多个百分点;等离子体辅助煤气化以用氮气、氩气等为工作气体,实现了气化剂与工作气体的分离以及发生器和反应器的分离;CO2等离子体煤气化技术为煤炭的清洁利用和CO2的资源化利用提供了可借鉴的方法。同时,笔者还论述了学科交叉产生的最新成果:即等离子体煤气化技术在电站燃煤锅炉点火启动和降低氮氧化物方面的应用。在锅炉点火启动方面,与常规等离子体点火技术相比,采用等离子体煤气化技术虽然会增加成本,但相对于燃用低挥发分煤的煤粉锅炉每年上千吨的节油量,经济效益显著。在氮氧化物减排方面,烟台龙源电力技术股份有限公司采用等离子体辅助煤气化技术与低NOx燃烧技术相结合,以达到深度降低氮氧化物的目的,且解决了等离子体煤气化普遍存在的煤处理量少、能耗高的问题,试验结果表明,采用60 kW等离子体发生器即可处理5 t/h煤量,实现了低能耗的等离子体辅助煤气化。据估算,该技术的初投资略低于SCR脱硝技术,而运行费用仅为SCR的一半。因此建议将基于等离子体点火的内燃技术引入等离子体煤气化技术,可大幅提高煤处理规模、降低能耗,与低NOx燃烧技术相结合并实现工业化,将会推动其在电站燃煤锅炉技术领域的快速发展,成为一种具有很好应用前景的煤炭清洁高效利用手段。

关键词:等离子体;煤气化;燃烧;锅炉

中图分类号:TQ54

文献标志码:A

文章编号:1006-6772(2019)01-0035-06

收稿日期:2018-12-06;

责任编辑:张晓宁

DOI:10.13226/j.issn.1006-6772.18120611

基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助项目(2018YFB0604205)

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作者简介:龚泽儒(1981—),男,湖南双峰人,高级工程师,博士研究生,从事清洁煤燃烧理论研究与技术开发。E-mail:immortal191@163.com

引用格式:龚泽儒,王晓娜,吕俊复,等.等离子体煤气化技术研究进展[J].洁净煤技术,2019,25(1):35-40.

GONG Zeru,WANG Xiaona,LYU Junfu,et al.Research on plasma gasification technology of coal[J].Clean Coal Technology,2019,25(1):35-40.

Research on plasma gasification technology of coal

GONG Zeru1,2,WANG Xiaona2,LYU Junfu1,ZHANG Ji3

(1.Department of Energy and Power Engineering,Tsinghua University,Beijing 100084,China;2.Yantai Long Yuan Power Technology Co.,Ltd.,Yantai 264006,China;3.Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Liaoning Electric Power Co.,Ltd.,Shenyang 110006,China)

Abstract:Plasma gasification of coal is a novel technology which can make ultra-clean use of coal come true.It has great and potential application prospect.The basic principle and three typical techniques of plasma coal gasification technology are introduced,which include steam plasma coal gasification,plasma jet aid coal gasification and CO2 plasma coal gasification.The carbon conversion of steam plasma coal gasification is 93%-94%,whose concentration of gasification syngas conventional is 10% higher than convention.Nitrogen and argon are used in plasma jet aid coal gasification,which can realize the separation of gasification agent and working gas and the separation of generator and reactor.CO2 plasma coal gasification is proved to be an effective method for the clean utilization of coal and resource utilization of CO2.Besides,the latest achievements of interdisciplinary research are discussed which include the application in the ignition and nitrogen oxides reduction of power plant pulverized boiler.In terms of boiler ignition:Compared with conventional plasma ignition technology,economic benefits of plasma coal gasification technology are significant which can save thousands of tons of fuel per year.In terms of nitrogen oxide reduction:The combination of plasma jet aid coal gasification and low NOx combustion technology is adopted by Yantai Longyuan Power Technology Co.,Ltd,in order to achieve deep reduction of nitrogen oxides and solve the problems of low coal handling capacity and high energy consumption.The test results of Longyuan show that the coal of 5 t/h could be disposed by the 60 kW plasma generator,and the low-energy plasma jet aid coal gasification could be realized.According to preliminary estimate,its initial investment is slightly less than SCR denitrification technology while its operating costs are only half of SCR.Therefore,it is suggested to introduce the internal combustion technology based on plasma ignition into the plasma coal gasification technology.In this way,the coal processing scale can be greatly increased and energy consumption can be greatly reduced.Combined the plasma gasification technology of coal with low NOx combustion technology to industrialize,which will promote the rapid development in the field of power plant pulverized boiler.It will become a clean and efficient coal utilization method with great application prospect.

Key words:plasma;coal gasification;combustion;boiler