我国煤制燃料油技术进展及工业化现状

胡发亭1,2,3,颜丙峰1,2,3,王光耀1,2,3,谷小会1,2,3,常秋连1,2,3

(1.煤炭科学技术研究院有限公司 煤化工分院,北京 100013;2.煤炭资源开采与洁净利用国家重点实验室,北京 100013;3.国家能源煤炭高效利用与节能减排技术装备重点实验室,北京 100013)

:我国富煤贫油少气,以煤为原料生产清洁燃料油具有重要意义。为实现我国煤制燃料油产业健康有序快速发展,论述了煤直接液化、煤间接液化、煤油共炼3种煤制燃料油技术的定义、原理以及工艺流程,概述了煤制燃料油技术在我国的发展历程、技术研究进展及工业化应用现状。对3种煤制燃料油技工业应用过程中存在的问题、技术难点进行分析,并展望了应用前景。3种煤制燃料油技术在我国均已建成工业示范项目,步入了商业化发展阶段,煤直接液化和煤油共炼由于技术和原料的特殊性,目前均只是建设了一套工业示范装置,而我国已投产或试车成功的煤间接液化项目有10个左右,总产能近千万吨。煤直接液化技术吨油煤耗小,投资和运行成本低,今后应重点提高循环溶剂的质量和数量;煤间接液化技术成熟,是我国重点推广的煤制燃料油技术,未来的发展趋势是拓展产品种类,提高产品附加值;在同时具备适合液化的煤和重质油资源的企业适宜发展煤油共炼产业。国家应加大煤制油研发投入,重点解决目前存在的水耗、能耗、碳排放高等问题,并给予政策支持,促进煤制油产业快速发展,保障国家能源安全。以规划为先导,积极稳妥发展煤制燃料油产业,是煤炭行业未来发展的新格局新趋势。

关键词:煤;燃料油;直接液化;间接液化;煤油共炼

中图分类号:TQ522

文献标志码:A

文章编号:1006-6772(2019)01-0057-07

收稿日期:2018-12-25;

责任编辑:白娅娜

DOI:10.13226/j.issn.1006-6772.18122501

基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助项目(2016YFB0600303);NSFC-山西省煤基低碳联合基金资助项目(U1610221)

移动阅读

作者简介:胡发亭(1976—),男,山东荷泽人,高级工程师,研究方向为煤炭直接液化、煤油共炼、煤焦油加氢、精细化工技术等。E-mail:hufating@163.com

引用格式:胡发亭,颜丙峰,王光耀,等.我国煤制燃料油技术进展及工业化现状[J].洁净煤技术,2019,25(1):57-63.

HU Fating,YAN Bingfeng,WANG Guangyao,et al.Technical progress and industrialization status of coal to fuel oil in China[J].Clean Coal Technology,2019,25(1):57-63.

Technical progress and industrialization status of coal to fuel oil in China

HU Fating1,2,3,YAN Bingfeng1,2,3,WANG Guangyao1,2,3,GU Xiaohui1,2,3,CHANG Qiulian1,2,3

(1.Coal Chemistry Branch of China Coal Research InstituteBeijing 100013,China;2.State Key Laboratory of Coal Mining and Clean Utilization,Beijing 100013,China;3.National Energy Technology and Equipment Laboratory of Coal Utilization and Emission Control,Beijing 100013,China)

Abstract:China is rich in coal and poor in oil and gas,it is of great significance to produce clean fuel oil by using coal as raw material.In order to realize healthy and orderly development of China's coal to fuel oil industry,The definition,principle and technological process of direct coal liquefaction,indirect coal liquefaction and coal-oil co-processing were introduced.The development course,technology research and industrial application of coal to fuel oil technology in China were reviewed.The existing technical problems and industrial application of three kinds of coal to fuel oil were summarized,and the technical difficulties and application prospects of the three kinds of coal to fuel oil were discussed and prospected.Industrial demonstration projects have been completed for these three types of coal to fuel oil technologies,and have entered the stage of commercial development.Because of the particularity of technology and raw materials,the direct coal liquefaction and coal-oil co-processing have now only built a set of industrial demonstration units.There are about 10 indirect coal liquefaction projects in China that have been put into production or tested successfully,with a total capacity of nearly 10 million tons.It provides an important reference for the long-term planning and policy-making of coal to fuel oil industry in China.Direct coal liquefaction technology with low coal consumption and low investment and operation cost should focus on improving the quality and quantity of circulating solvents in the future.The technology of indirect coal liquefaction is mature,and it is a key popularized technology.The development trend of indirect coal liquefaction technology in the future is to expand the product category and increase the added value of the product.Enterprises with coal and heavy oil resources suitable for liquefaction are suitable for the development of coal-oil co-processing industry.The government should increase investment in research and development of coal to oil,focusing on solving the existing problems of high water consumption,energy consumption,carbon emissions,etc.The government should give policy support to the coal to oil industry,promote the rapid development of the coal oil industry and ensure the national energy security.It is a new pattern and new trend of development for the coal industry to actively and steadily develop the coal to fuel oil industry under the guidance of planning.

Key words:coal;fuel oil;direct liquefaction;indirect liquefaction;coal-oil co-processing

0 引 言

我国“富煤、缺油、少气”的能源禀赋特点决定了在