煤中低温热解挥发分和硫脱除研究进展

杨凤玲1,任 磊1,贾阳杰2,吴海滨2,狄子琛1,程芳琴1

(1.山西大学 国家环境保护煤炭废弃物资源化高效利用技术重点实验室 低附加值煤基资源高值利用协同创新中心,山西 太原 030006;2.山西瑞恩泽科技有限公司,山西 太原 030006)

:针对目前我国民用燃煤煤质较差,污染物无法集中处理,污染环境等问题,基于煤热解原理和硫的赋存形态,分析了气氛、添加剂、升温速率对煤热解过程的影响,论述了国内外目前较为成熟的粉煤干馏工艺,分析了粉煤干馏和块煤干馏的优缺点,提出了粉煤成型热解的工艺思路。重点介绍了目前山西大学和山西领君重工集团联合开发的无烟碳化型煤热解工艺路线,提出了一种洁净煤清洁燃烧多联产工艺系统。粉煤干馏工艺都以粉煤和粒煤为原料,易造成粉尘沉积和堵塞,无法高效分离。块煤可提高焦与油的分离效率,但非胶黏性煤热解过程中会粉化,效率不高。以半焦为热载体会降低半焦利用效率,产生大量焦粉,焦粉民用燃烧需成型,且难以黏结成型,鉴于此,提出了配煤成型热解的思路。热解后半焦粉末经成型可提高油、气产率,强度较好,与焦油高效分离,其产品可根据工艺控制挥发分供民用。煤成型热解联产无烟碳化型煤工艺生产的型煤整体利用率高,产生的污染物提取可制成高附加值副产品,有效控制粉尘污染,提高煤炭的品质和价值。无烟型碳挥发分和发热量高于无烟煤,强度高,用于民用燃烧完全符合国家标准。洁净煤清洁燃烧多联产工艺将循环流化床发电、洁净煤生产和粉煤灰陶粒制作有机结合,可有效利用电厂预热作为热源,并将干馏型煤生产的干馏气用于陶粒烧结的气源,得到洁净型煤产品,实现了固废综合利用和洁净燃烧。

关键词:煤热解;硫;干馏工艺;成型热解;挥发分

中图分类号:TQ523

文献标志码:A

文章编号:1006-6772(2019)01-0047-10

收稿日期:2018-12-10;

责任编辑:白娅娜

DOI:10.13226/j.issn.1006-6772.18121002

基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助项目(2017YFC0211401);国家科技惠民计划资助项目(2012GS140202)

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作者简介:杨凤玲(1964—),女,山西临猗人,高级工程师,从事煤洁净燃烧方向研究。E-mail:yangfl@sxu.edu.cn。通讯作者:程芳琴,教授,从事煤洁净燃烧及固废利用方向研究。E-mail:cfangqin@sxu.edu.cn

引用格式:杨凤玲,任磊,贾阳杰,等.煤中低温热解挥发分和硫脱除研究进展[J].洁净煤技术,2019,25(1):47-56.

YANG Fengling,REN Lei,JIA Yangjie,et al.Research progress on volatiles and sulfur removal during low temperature pyrolysis of coal[J].Clean Coal Technology,2019,25(1):47-56.

Research progress on volatiles and sulfur removal during low temperature pyrolysis of coal

YANG Fengling1,REN Lei1,JIA Yangjie2,WU Haibing2,DI Zichen1,CHENG fangqin1

(1.Collaborative Innovation Center of High Value-added Utilization of Coal-related Wastes,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Efficient Utiliz-ation Technology of Coal Waste Resources,Shanxi University,Taiyuan 030006,China;2.Shanxi Rui En Ze Technology Co.,Ltd.,Taiyuan 030006,China)

Abstract:Aiming at the problem of serious air pollution caused by poor quality of coal and inability to centralize the treatment of pollutants in China's civil combustion at present,effects of atmosphere,additives and heating rate on coal pyrolysis was analyzed based on the principle of coal pyrolysis and the occurrence form of sulfur.The relatively mature dry distillation process of pulverized coal at home and abroad was discussed,the advantages and disadvantages of dry distillation of pulverized coal and lump coal were analyzed,and the technological thinking of briquette pyrolysis of pulverized coal was put forward.The pyrolysis process route of anthracite-carbonized briquette jointly developed by Shanxi University and Shanxi Lingjun Heavy Industry Group was introduced.Clean coal clean combustion multi-production process system was proposed.The dry distillation process of pulverized coal takes pulverized coal and granular coal as raw materials,which is easy to cause dust deposition and blockage,and can't be separated efficiently.Lump coal can improve the separation efficiency of tar and oil,but non-sticky coal will be pulverized in the pyrolysis process,and the efficiency is not high.Using semi-coke as heat carrier will reduce the utilization efficiency of semi-coke and produce a large number of coke powder.Civil combustion of coke powder needs to be shaped,and it is difficult to bond.In view of this,the idea of coal blending forming pyrolysis is put forward.The briquette of semi-coke powder after pyrolysis can increase the yield of oil and gas,and has good strength.It can be separated from tar efficiently,and its products can be controlled for civil use according to the process.Coal briquette produced by coal briquetting pyrolysis combined with anthracite-carbonized briquette jointly has a high overall utilization rate.The pollutants produced can be extracted into high value-added by-products,which can effectively control dust pollution and improve the quality and value of coal.The volatile matter and calorific value of smokeless carbon are higher than those of anthracite coal,and the intensity of smokeless carbon is high.The smokeless carbon used in civil combustion fully conforms to the national standards.Clean coal clean combustion multi-production process system combines circulating fluidized bed power generation,clean coal production and fly ash ceramsite production.It can effectively use preheating of power plant as heat source,and use dry distillation gas produced by dry distillation briquette as gas source for ceramsite sintering to obtain clean briquette products,realizing comprehensive utilization of solid waste and clean c